1-1 对立法 : 先引出其他人的不同看法，然后提出自己的看法或者偏向于某一看法， 适用于有争议性的主题。
. When asked about....., the vast/overwhelming majority of people say that ....... But I think/view a bit differently.
. When it comes to .... , some people believe that ....... Others argue/claim that the opposite/reverse is true. There is probably some truth in both arguements/statements , but (I tend to the former/latter ...)
. Now, it is commonly/generally/widely believed/held/acknowledged that .... They claim/ believe/argue that ... But I wonder/doubt whether.....
1-2 现象法 引出要剖析的现象或者问题，然后评论。
. Recently the rise in problem of/(phenomenon of) ... has cause/aroused public/popular/wide/ worldwide concern.
. Recently the issue of the problem of/the phenomenon of ...has been brought into focus. ( has been brought to public attention)
.Inflation/Corruption/Social inequality ... is yet another of the new and bitter truth we have to learn to face now/constantly.
1-3 观点法 ----开门见山，直接了当地提出自己对要讨论的问题的看法。
. Now people in growing/significant numbers are beginnig/coming to realize/accept/(be aware) that...
. Now there is a growing awareness/recognation of the necessity to......Now people become increasingly aware/conscious of the importance of ......
. Perhaps it is time to have a fresh look at the attitude/idea that.......
1-4 引用法 ----- 先引出名人名言或者有代表性的看法，来引出文章要展开论述的观点。
. "Knowledge is power." such is the remark made by Bacon.This remark has been shared by more and more people .
"Education is not complete with graduation." such is the opinion of a great American philosopher. Now more and more people share his opinion.
.How often do we hear statements like ".........".
In our own days we are used to hearing such traditional complains as this "......".
1-5 比较法 ------ 通过对过去、现在两种不同的倾向、观点的比较，引出文章要讨论的观点。
. For years, ...had been viewed as ... But people are taking a fresh look now. With the growing ... , people ....... .
. People used to think that ... (In the past, ....) But people now share this new...
1-6 故事法 ---- 先讲一个较短的故事来引发读者的兴趣，引出文章的主题。
. Once in (a newspaper) , I read of/learnt .... The phenemenon of ... has aroused public concern.
. I have a friend who ... Should he .... ? Such a dilemma we are often confront with in our daily life.
. Once upon a time , there lived a man who ... This story may be (unbelievable) , but it still has a realistic significance now.
1-7 问题法 ----- 先用讨论或解答的设问，引出自己观点， 适用于有争议性的话题。
Should/What ...... ? Options of ... vary greatly , some ..., others ...
But in my opinion , ...... .
2-1. 基本原因 --- 分析某事物时, 用此句型说明其基本的或者多方面的原因.
. Why ... ? For one thing.. For another ...
. The answer to this problem invovles many factors. For one thing... For another...... Still another ...
. A number of factors , both physical and psychological affect .... /both individual and social contribute to ....
2-2 另一原因 --------> 在分析了基本原因之后, 再补充一个次要的或者更重要时用!
. Another important factor is ....
. ... is also responsible for the change/problem.
. Certainly , the ... is not the sole reason for .....
2-3 后果影响 --------- 分析某事物可能造成的后果或者带来的影响 .
. It will produce a profound/far-reaching effect/impact on....
. It involves some serious consequence for ........
2-4-1. 两者比较 ---> 比较两事物, 要说出其一超过另一个, 或肯定一事物的优点, 也肯定其缺点的时候用 !
. The advantages gained from A are much greater than the advantages we gain from B.
. Indeed, A carries much weight when compared with B.
. There is no doubt that it has its negative effects as well as positive effects.
2-4-2 . 两者相同/相似 ------> 比较两事物共同都有或者共同都没有的特点时用!
. A and B have several things in common. They are similar in that.....
. A bears some striking resemblance(s) to B.
3-1 结论性--------- 通过对文章前面的讨论 ,引出或重申文章的中心思想及观点 .
. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that .....
. In summary/In a word , it is more valuable .......
3-2 后果性------ 揭示所讨论的问题若不解决, 将产生的严重后果.
. We must call for an immediate method , because the current phenomenon of ... , if allowed to proceed, will surely lead to the heavy cost of .......
. Obviously , if we ignore/are blind to the problem , there is every chance that .. will be put in danger.
3-3 号召性 -------- 呼吁读者行动起来, 采取行动或提请注意.
. It is time that we urged an immediate end to the undesirable tendency of ......
. It is essential that effective measures should be taken to correct the tendency.
3-4 建议性 -------- 对所讨论的问题提出建议性的意见, 包括建议和具体的解决问题的方法.
. While it cannot be solved immediately, still there are ways. The most popular is .... Another method is ... Still another one is .....
. Awareness/Recognition of the problem is the first step toward the situation.
3-5 方向性的结尾方式 ---- 其与建议性的唯一差别就是对问题解决提出总的, 大体的方向或者指明前景.
. Many solutions are being offered here , all of them make some sense, but none is adequate enough. The problem should be recognized in a wide way .
. There is no quick method to the issue of .., but .. might be helpful/benefical.
. The great challenge today is ...... There is much difficulty , but ........
3-6 意义性的结尾方式 --------> 文章结尾的时候,从更高的更新的角度指出所讨论的问题的重要性以及其深远的意义!
. Following these suggestions may not guarantee the success, but the payoff might be worth the effort . It will not only benefit but also benefit .....
. In any case, whether it is positive or negative, one thing is certain that it will undoubtedly ..